I am currently wrestling with a problem and I would very much value any advice as to where I might find the answer.
In theory, as I understand it, when someone was killed, there was a price on their life which varied with their social status. The killer and their kin were responsible for paying this to the kin of the victim. In the law codes, the amount is usually given in shillings (200 for a free ceorl, for instance). There was very little coin in early seventh-century Britain, so I assume that compensation was paid in kind, in cows for instance. So far so good.
But in working out how to incorporate this practice into my novel, I have encountered two problems.
1: what sort of killings could lead to compensation (or the alternative which compensation was designed to avoid: blood feud)? In particular, given the number of small kingdoms in early seventh-century Britain, when were the kin of anyone killed in battle entitled to any form of compensation? Presumably, during skirmishes between neighbouring lords, the answer was yes, whereas for skirmishes between ‘kings’ the answer was no. That seems to have been at least partly what the regulations concerning wergeld were about: enforcing ‘royal’ power and confining the right to kill to kings. But has anyone written about this? I would really value more information.
2: Who was entitled to receive the wergeld? Was it only male kin, or did female kin qualify? And to what degree? Father’s brothers yes? But what about mother’s brothers? Sons and brothers yes, but what about sisters and daughters? And if there were no surviving kin of the right degree, who got the wergeld? The king? A more local lord? Or were the killer and their kin home free?
Can anyone help with this? I have done my best, combing through various translations of the surviving seventh century law codes, but they don’t seem to hold the answers.